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Fourth Grade 

Clara Isabel Mitchell 

The outline for the fourth grade work 
will be planned from two standpoints, the 
first being that of the children and their 
activities; the second, that of the teacher 
and the subject-matter to be taught. The 
activities planned are those most natural 
to the children, and being common to the 
whole race are such as will relate them 
to the work of the world. They will in- 
clude processes of wood - work, sewing, 
weaving, and cooking. The subject-matter 
to be given by the teacher in the form of les- 
sons will be that demanded by the needs 
of the school community in its pursuance 
of these activities. By means of books, 
stories, descriptions, pictures, and discus- 
sions the children will be helped to inter- 
pret in a degree the conditions of their 
home and school life. It will be the aim 
of the teacher to test all subjects and meth- 
ods according to their fitness for this end. 

Cooking, as one of these activities, will 
include preparation and serving of some 
simple selected foods. 

Weaving, spinning, sewing, and embroid- 
ery will be necessary processes in the mak- 
ing of various articles for use in the school. 

Wood-work will furnish another means 
of fulfilling the needs of school life. 

Elementary book-binding and decora- 
tion will extend throughout the year in 
the making of scrapbooks, portfolios, and 
simple bookcovers. 

Entertainments will be given for the 
pleasure of younger children. There will 
be games, plays, and exercise in the gym- 

The children will have the care of the 
plants and animals brought into the school 
by themselves or the teachers. 

Excursions into the city and surround- 
ing country will be made for the purpose 
of seeing the continuation and develop- 
ment of these activities in the larger life 
of the community of which the school 
is a part. 

There will be laboratory work as needed 
to explain problems arising in the pursuit 
of the activities of daily life. 

Books will be used, stories, and descrip- 
tions with stereopticon, which are clearly 
a help in the immediate life of the school- 
room or home. Composition will be a part 
of the school life in the writing of original 
plays, stories, descriptions, records, letters, 
and notes whenever the needs of the chil- 
dren demand such expression. 

Musical expression in singing will be 
a prominent and constant factor in the 
school life, the children making songs 
as well as singing by note, and listening 
to the best music that can be found for 

Cooking: Children will discuss the methods 
of preparing fruit for the table, and will plan 
their own experiments in drying, baking, and 
steaming. They will prepare and serve one 
luncheon each week for the children of another 

Weaving: The weaving will be done on 
simple frames constructed by the children in 
the manual training shop. Its motive will 
be the making of a curtain for use in the 
school. The work will be so arranged that 
all may contribute a part. Material will be 
heavy carpet yarn of good color woven into 
strips and sewed together with ornamental 

Sewing: Sewing aprons will be designed, 
sewed, and ornamented with cross-stitch in 
colored cottons or linens. 

Dyeing: Experiments will be made on cot- 
ton yarns with aniline and natural dye stuffs to 



ascertain the most practical means of getting 
good and enduring colors suited to the em- 
broidery of the aprons. 

Wood-work: Simple looms, referred to un- 
der weaving, will be planned and made from 
model. (See page 145.) 

Bookbinding: A portfolio necessary for pre- 
serving plans and papers will be made by each 
child for his own use. Materials used will be 
straw-board, vellum, and tapes. 

Drawing and Painting: The children will be 
asked for pictures of only such stories and sub- 
jects as are sufficiently interesting to move 
them to free and enthusiastic expression. In 
all illustrations they will be allowed to choose 
their own mediums and will be encouraged to 
originality in work. Working drawings will be 
made of all articles constructed in any of the 

Entertainment: The fourth-grade children 
will be responsible for the entertainment of the 
entire school for a period of twenty minutes one 
morning of the month. As the appointed morn- 
ing happens to be Chicago Day, the exercises 
will be planned to fit the occasion with appro- 
priate stories, songs, drawings, and quotations. 
The entertainment of other children in the pri- 
mary grades will occupy an hour toward the 
close of the month and at that time the children 
will select such stories, experiences, songs, and 
incidents from the month's work as they think 
will prove interesting to their visitors. 

Physical Culture: Children's physical meas- 
urements will be recorded on charts, and curves 
made. Sense tests also will be made with 
every child and tests for nutrition. Proper posi- 
tions in standing and working will be watched 
for and encouraged in the school-room. Short 
periods of rest will be spent in games and plays. 
Individual and corrective gymnastics will be 
given in the gymnasium, also developmental 
class-work, with exercises in rhythm and games. 

Field-Trips: Excursions will be made to a 
farm, a bake-house, the stockyards, wharves, 
South Water Street, a cotton-mill, social settle- 
ments, and, where practicable, to the character- 
istic colonies of foreigners. Field excursions are 
planned also to the Sand Dunes, to Winnetka, 
Waukegan, Beverly Hills, and a swamp region. 
Stereopticon pictures will be substituted for 
visits to the places which prove impossible of 

Sociology: In discussing the people con- 
cerned in the work of the city the children will 
learn that many nationalities are represented 

in our population. Visits to the different indus- 
tries and settlements of the city will give only 
a slight acquaintance with all these people, and 
therefore the knowledge gained by these means 
will be supplemented by stories — the best pos- 
sible — of the lives, customs, and arts of the peo- 
ple both here and in their mother countries, 
pictures and geographical descriptions, stories 
from their literature, reproductions of their 
art, and biographies of their great men, all to 
the end of higher appreciation of their lives 
and better understanding of their value to the 

Geography: The geography of the month 
will be the study of Lake Michigan as a force 
in building the land for the present city; its 
work in building and wearing will be observed 
at the Sand Dunes, Winnetka, and Lake Side, 
also at the old shore line as seen at Waukegan, 
and at Beverly Hills. The lake and river will 
also be studied as affording highways and har- 
bors for commerce. In this connection are 
planned excursions to the wharves, and, if pos- 
sible, to a lighthouse. 

Nature Study: The lessons in Nature Study 
will be based upon the field trips, and will an- 
swer as nearly as may be the problems arising 
in the daily work of the children. As sociolog- 
ical pictures of Chicago are the special study 
of the month, the children's attention will be 
directed to the observation of weather con- 
ditions as influences in the life of people. 
The report of the United States Weather Bu- 
reau will be read daily, and individual observa- 
tions of temperature, rainfall, direction of wind 
and cloudiness will be recorded in note-books. 
Further than this, there will be study of typical 
geographical areas of the region, with observa- 
tion as to kinds of soil and characteristic plant 
life of each. Provision will be made for indoor, 
and if possible outdoor, experiments in growth 
of seeds and plants in the different soils — i.e., 
sand, prairie-soil, swamp-soil, and garden-soil. 
Children will be encouraged to bring into school 
all the plant and animal life which can be 
properly cared for there, and this, with the 
animals visited at the zoological gardens, will 
be constantly observed and informally dis- 

Arithmetic: In cooking, fruits will be dried, 
and the dried fruits will be prepared for eating. 
These processes will make prominent the large 
proportion of water in the fruits. To measure 
this and gain a knowledge of recipes and quan- 
tities for cooking, a study will be made of ex- 



act proportions. The familiar fruits will be 
weighed, dried, and reweighed to find loss by 
evaporation. Percentage will be taught here 
as the simplest means of expressing propor- 

Reading and Dramatic Art: Bits of charac- 
teristic literature, giving glimpses of the former 
national life of some of the people of the city, 
have been selected for the children's reading, 
or for telling to them. The Tar Baby will be 
told as a typical negro story, and the Siegfried 
myth will probably be dramatized as an aid to 
the comprehension of the Scandinavian peo- 
ples. In addition, stories will be selected from 
Greek Folk- Lore (Riverside edition), Scud- 
der's German Folk-Lore, Chinese Folk-Lo?-e, 

and the lives of Giotto, Fra Angelico, and Ra- 

French: Correlated with cooking. Making 
and serving of simple dishes. Memorizing and 
singing of La Bergere. During these occupa- 
tions the French language will be exclusively 
used. (See Outline for French, page 151.) 

Music: Chinese, German, Italian, Russian, 
and Greek lullaby songs will be taught by rote; 
also, Foreign Children, by Eleanor Smith, 
and Sweet October. Children will be en- 
couraged in solo-singing, and will be asked to 
compose original text and music for their own 
little songs. These original compositions will 
be written for them, and will thus form the 
beginning of the study of musical notation. 

Fifth Grade 

Willard Streeter Bass 

History: Subject — The Settlement and 
Early Industrial Development of New 

New England an Important Source of the 
Present Population of Chicago: Ask children 
where the people they see around them came 
from, in particular, where the native "Ameri- 
cans " or their parents came from. Find how 
many of the children are descendants of peo- 
ple who came from Eastern states, in par- 
ticular from New England. 

New England: Describe the principal occu- 
pations and industries of New England, and 
show pictures of typical landscapes. Describe 
somewhat the land and the people. 

First Permanent Settlement in New Eng- 
land: Show pictures of the Mayflower and the 
Pilgrims off Cape Cod. Describe the search 
for a place to found a settlement. Give rea- 
sons for the site finally selected. Draw a map 
of, or mold in sand, Plymouth and its surround- 
ings, showing the good harbor, the slope already 
cleared by the Indians and the hills command- 
ing views of the surrounding country and the 

Government of Plymouth Colony: Describe 
the fears for lawlessness and disorder which 
troubled the company on the Mayflower. Have 
children see how this led to the compact on the 
Mayflower, and to the election of a governor. 

First Years of Plymouth Colony: Describe 
briefly the sufferings of the first winter, the re- 

lations with the Indians, including the treaty 
with Massasoit, the success of the first summer, 
and the anxieties of the next few years until 
the firm establishment of the colony. 

Communism: Describe the system of com- 
mon ownership of land and property employed 
at Plymouth, its causes and its effects. Discuss 
the reasons which led to its abandonment at 
Plymouth, and how the arguments which Gov- 
ernor Bradford gave against communism are 
applicable to present socialism. [See Hart, 
American History Told by Contemporaries, 
Vol I, pp. 352, 353.] 

Reasons Why Puritans Came to New Eng- 
land: Tell of the formation of Separatist 
churches, of the opposition of James I. to them 
and his resolve to " harry them out of the land," 
and of the annoyances which led the congrega- 
tion at Scrooby to emigrate to Holland and 
thence to America. 

The Great Puritan Exodus: Tell of the 
attempt of Charles I. to govern without a par- 
liament, and how great numbers of Puritans, 
fearing the loss of their political liberties, re- 
solved to follow the pilgrims to America, and 
established a state in which they might secure 
their own civil and ecclesiastical institutions. 
Draw a map of New England showing the po- 
sition of the various colonies and towns founded 
between 1629 and 1640. 

Geography of New England: Study by 
means of pictures and descriptions the topog- 
raphy of New England, the character of the